Sexually Transmitted Diseases that are not expressed in the genitalia - Safe-sex Sexually Transmitted Diseases that are not expressed in the genitalia - Safe-sex
מיקום המרפאה: רחוב לוינסקי 108, בתוך התחנה המרכזית החדשה, בקומה 5 (מעל קווי אגד 4,5).
בחרו עמוד

AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

This is a disease caused by HIV – human immunodeficiency virus, which affects the immune system until its absolute failure at later stages of the disease (the AIDS stage). The virus is transmitted between people through sex, through blood contact with the infected blood of another person, and from mother to infant during childbirth and breastfeeding.

HIV/AIDS was discovered in the western world in the late 1970's and since then it has become one of the most researched diseases in the world. Although the disease is still incurable, in the 1990's a combination of medications known as a "cocktail" (a combination of three medications administered together) was developed and has since then allowed carriers of the disease to extend their life.  The medication cocktail delays the rate of reproduction of the virus and allows partial restoration of the immune system, so today HIV (in places where there is access to this medicine) is a chronic and treatable disease that does not cause death as a result of the failure of the immune system. Despite the progress in the research of the disease, no medication has been found that could destroy the virus, nor a vaccine that could efficiently protect against it.

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

It is important to remember that there are no defined symptoms and not every person experiences the same symptoms. Sometimes, shortly after becoming infected, there are people who report fevers that are similar to mononucleosis, accompanied by enlarged lymph nodes, pass without any treatment, and are caused by the virus itself. Between the time of infection and the outbreak of the symptoms of HIV/AIDS, there is a carrier period during which there are no symptoms at all, however, it may be possible to transmit the disease during this time. Symptoms of AIDS mostly appear several years after becoming infected (usually two to three years) and include infections, including opportunistic infections (by agents that do not cause infection in a person with a normal immune system, but do when it is weakened, such as persistent oral candidiasis), significant weight loss and different cancers.

How it is detected?  A combination test (HIV Ag/Ab Combo) that includes a test to detect the virus by identifying the protein found on the envelope of the virus (p24 antigen), and an ELISA test, which can confirm whether someone is a carrier seven weeks after transmission. The combo test is the most common test and it is performed in all testing centers and HMO's. The test is available at all testing centers and HMO's for free. In some medical centers and at the committee for the fight against AIDS at the Levinsky Center, it can be performed anonymously.

Ways to get infected:  Through unprotected sex with a person who already has HIV, even before symptoms of the disease appear; contact with blood infected with HIV (infected blood portions, using used needles, tattooing and piercing with non-sterile needles); transmittance from mother to infant during childbirth and breastfeeding.

Saliva, tears, sweat, vomit, snot, urine or stool do not infect. A handshake, hug, kiss (even a passionate French kiss), drinking or eating from shared kitchen utensils, sitting on a toilet or using a shared towel do not infect. The virus is not transferred in food, air or animals, including mosquitos.

How is it treated? The disease cannot be cured. The medications that were developed in the last few years cannot destroy the virus, but do have the ability to extend and improve the patients' lives.

Prevention: Proper and regular use of a condom is the best protection.

For every relationship it is important to take an HIV test before having unprotected sex. Until receiving the results of the test, continue having protected sex.

Incubation time: Three weeks after the exposure.

An important piece of information about HIV and oral sex

The chance of transmitting the HIV virus in oral sex is almost non-existing. For the person the act is being performed on, there is no risk of contracting HIV. For the person performing the act, there is only a theoretical concern, and there is no documented case in the medical literature of HIV being transmitted in this manner. To minimize the risk, we recommend that you refrain from ejaculating in the mouth. if there was an ejaculation in the mouth, we recommend swallowing or spitting (not keeping the liquid in your mouth for long). Theoretically, if the person performing oral sex has a very big amount of blood in the mouth, the blood can be absorbed into the urethral opening at the tip of the penis, vagina or cervix, in the anus or through open cuts or wounds. If the person who receives the oral sex is HIV positive, the sperm, the pre-ejaculatory fluid, or the vaginal fluid can contain the AIDS virus. therefore, the person can expose a partner who performs oral sex on them to the virus.

Other sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted relatively easily through oral sex, both performed on you or by you. The most common are STDs transmitted through oral sex are gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes.

Hepatitis B

Infectious hepatitis is a virus that causes infections in the liver. There are several types of hepatitis: A, B, C, D, E.

Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis virus – B, hepatitis B virus, HBV. The disease is transmitted by bodily fluids infected with the virus – mainly by contact with infected blood and sex. The disease is expressed in the kidneys. Most patients (85%) will completely heal from the disease and develop antibodies against the virus. Few will continue to be carriers of the virus and over the years may suffer from kidney failure and enlarged kidneys.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B

A severe kidney infection that is caused by the hepatitis, a decrease in appetite, nausea, rashes and aching joints appears between 6 weeks to 6 months after infection. Being infected during childhood usually does not cause any symptoms at all.

How is it detected?  By a blood test that detects antibodies against the virus.

Ways to get infected: Sex with an infected person; contact with infected blood (using used needles, tattooing and piercing with non-sterile needles); transmittance from an infected mother to a newborn.

How is it treated? There is no treatment for the acute disease. In most cases, there is a quick recovery from the acute disease. During the time in which the acute disease is active, get a lot of bed rest, eat well and abstain from drinking alcohol. There are combination treatments for chronic carriers of the Hepatitis B virus that are partially successful in preventing the destruction of the liver.

Possible complications: Becoming a chronic carrier of the virus and high risk of cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure and cancer in the liver.

Prevention: It is possible to prevent the infection with a vaccine that is administered at the clinic. Proper and regular use of a condom is also good protection.

The disease is not routinely tested for by gynecologists or family doctors during pregnancy.

There is a vaccine for Hepatitis B – the vaccine is given in three doses: two doses constitute approximately 90% protection + an emergency dose.

Incubation time:  6 months.

Hepatitis A, E are transmitted upon direct contact of stool residue with the orifice of the mouth. It is possible to become infected with Hepatitis A, E by rimming.

The infection can be transmitted through infected foods and is more common in developing countries.

Incubation time: Hepatitis A, E between two and six weeks.

Hepatitis B, C, D are transmitted through blood and bodily fluids, for example, secretions and semen. These diseases are also transmitted through sexual contact, especially Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C is mainly transmitted through unprotected passive anal sex.

Hepatitis B, C, D up to six months.

Individuals infected with hepatitis may develop an acute infection in the kidney. About 5% – 10% of infected individuals will not develop the disease but they will be carries of acute kidney disease.

There are vaccines for Hepatitis A, B. The vaccines can be received at the Levinsky Center (the vaccinrs are not free of charge).

The term AIDS is used very selectively and specifically in English to truly represent the final stage of the disease, otherwise it is referred to as HIV much more commonly. I suggest reviewing the document for correct usage of the two and not overusing AIDS unless really talking about the final disease.

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